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The Siege of Baghdad (1258 AD)

The Siege of Baghdad
The Siege of Baghdad began with a conquest expedition by the Mongols. The Mongols were a barbarian nation that lived in Central Asia.

In the early 13th century AD, the Mongols rose to make major conquests in mainland Asia under Genghis Khan.

In 1220 AD, Genghis Khan began his expedition westward by capturing the cities of Bukhara and Samarkhand in Uzbekistan.

Bukhara and Samarkhand are the richest cities in the Central Asian region because they were passed by large Chinese traders who were going to the West.

Genghis Khan and the Mongols always carried out mass destruction and murder on every expedition.

In the book Classical Islamic History (2013) by Susmihara and Rahmat, in 1251 AD, the Mongol expedition to the West was led by Hulagu Khan (grandson of Genghis Khan).

The expedition aimed to conquer Iraq, Syria, and Egypt. In March 1257 AD, Hulagu Khan managed to reach Hamadkan and conquered all the cities they passed along the way.

In Hamadkan, Hulagu Khan sent an ultimatum to the caliph Al-Mutashim who led the Abbasid dynasty. The content of the ultimatum was a demand for the caliph to come and surrender to the Mongols.

Caliph Al-Mutashim rejected the demands of the Mongols to surrender and chose to fight. In January 1258, Hulagu Khan's troops managed to reach the border area of ​​Baghdad.

After that, Hulagu Khan and his barbarian army attacked Baghdad in large numbers. Within weeks, Baghdad's defenses were overturned and the entire city destroyed.

Baghdad's political minister, Ibn al-Alqami, offered to negotiate with Hulagu Khan to defuse the chaos in Baghdad. However, the proposal was rejected by Hulagu Khan.

On February 10, 1258 AD, Hulagu Khan gathered the entire community and army in the center of Baghdad. After that, Hulagu Khan carried out mass killings and the destruction of Islamic culture in Baghdad.

In the book History of Islamic Civilization (2015) by Badri Yatim, the destruction of the city of Baghdad became the point of collapse of the Abbasid dynasty in the Middle East region.

In its development, Hulagu Khan founded a new dynasty centered in Iraq. His territory spanned horizontally from Iran to the Syrian border, and vertically from the Caucasus (Georgia) mountains to the Indian Ocean.